JOYCE LAMIA AHMAD MAHMOUD CARINA ZIAD HIBA LEEN MONA SAMI Jan 2005 Jan 2006 Jan 2007 Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Jan 2013 Jan 2014 Jan 2015 Jan 2016 Jan 2017 Jan 2018 Jan 2019 Jan 2020 Jan 2021 Jan 2022 1975 1980 1990 2000 Intensity 1 Intensity 2 Intensity 3 Intensity 4 Intensity 5

2005 April 13

Post-Civil War Era
- Forming a Government Forming

read more •On April 13th 2005, Omar Karami resigns as PM after failing to form a government. Moderate pro-Syrian MP Najib Mikati is named as his successor.

2005 Sept-Oct

Post-Civil War Era
- Accusations of Syrian and Lebanese Officials Accusations in the Killing of Hariri, October 2005

read more •Four pro-Syrian generals were charged in connection with the assassination of former PM Rafik Hariri.
•In a report to the UN Security Council, the preliminary findings of the international investigation into Hariri’s killing implicate high-ranking Syrian and Lebanese officials. Syria denies any role.

2007 Dec 17
Political Events After 07th of May 2008
-Communiqué on Lebanon Calls for immediate Presidential Elections

read more •On December 17th 2007, at the Paris donors’ conference for the Palestinian territories, a communiqué on Lebanon was issued by the representatives of Egypt, France, Italy, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Spain, the United Arab Emirates, the UK, the US and the EU.
•It called for an immediate presidential election, insisted that outside powers should respect Lebanon’s constitution and democratic institutions, condemned all political assassinations in Lebanon and supported the legitimate, democratically-elected Lebanese government and the Lebanese army.

2008 May 06

Political Events After 07th of May 2008
- Dismissing of the Chief of Beirut airport’s security, Wafiq Choucair

read more •On May 06th 2008, the government dismissed the chief of Beirut airport’s security, Wafiq Choucair, allegedly close to Hezbollah and declared a telecommunication network allegedly developed by Hezbollah illegal.
•Hassan Nasrallah, the Hezbollah leader, stated that those two measures were a war declaration by the government.

2009 April 19
Justice Tribunal over the Assassination of PM Rafik Hariri
– Arrests & Releases

read more Arrests over the killing of Prime Minister Hariri

•On April 19th 2009, a Former Syrian intelligence officer Mohammed Zuhair al-Siddiq arrested in connection with killing, and four pro-Syrian Lebanese generals held since 2005 freed after court rules there is not enough evidence to convict them.

2009 Sept 10
Justice Tribunal over the Assassination of PM Rafik Hariri
– Arrests & Releases

read more Resignation of Prime Minister Hariri

•On September 10th 2009, Hariri resigned as prime minister after his proposal for a national unity government was rejected by the opposition. He was reappointed prime minister a week later.

2010 July 22
Conflicts between Lebanese supporters and opponents of the Syrian regime
– Naming of the 4 men wanted for the murder of Hariri

read more •On July 22nd 2010, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon, established to try suspects in Rafik Hariri’s killing, names the four men wanted for the murder as Mustafa Amine Badreddine, a senior Hezbollah figure, as well as Salim Jamil •Ayyash, Hussein Hassan Oneissi and Assad Hassan Sabra.
•Hezbollah denies any role in the killing and says it will refuse to allow the suspects to be arrested.
•Accusations over the murder of Hariri, Hezbollah denies: Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah said that he expected that the prosecutor of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon would indict some Hezbollah members in relation to the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.

2010 Aug 24
Conflicts between Lebanese supporters and opponents of the Syrian regime
– Accusation of “False Witnesses”

read more On August 24th 2010, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah made a speech regarding the Tribunal and said that it was Lebanon’s right to know the identity of “false witnesses”.

2010 Sept 16
Conflicts between Lebanese supporters and opponents of the Syrian regime
– Blocking the Tribunal Progress

read more •On September 16th 2010, Hezbollah members blocked the progress on Lebanon’s contribution towards the Tribunal at the parliamentary budget committee meeting.

2010 Oct 27
Conflicts between Lebanese supporters and opponents of the Syrian regime
– Attacking Special Tribunal Staff

read more •On October 27th 2010, three staff members of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon were attacked in Beirut.

2011 Jan 12
Conflicts between Lebanese supporters and opponents of the Syrian regime
– Cabinet Collapse

read more •On January 12th 2011, Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri’s cabinet collapsed after Hezbollah-aligned ministers withdrew from cabinet over the issue of the Special Tribunal.

2011 June 29
Conflicts between Lebanese supporters and opponents of the Syrian regime
–Arrests over the murder of Prime Minister Hariri

read more •On June 29th 2011, the UN's Special Tribunal for Lebanon issues four arrest warrants over the murder of Rafik Hariri. The accused are members of Hezbollah, which says it won't allow their arrest.

2013 March 22
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
– Resignation of Mikati’s Cabinet

read more •On March 22nd 2013, Najib Mikati's government resigns amid tensions over upcoming elections.

2013 April
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
–Hezbollah officially deploys his fighters in Syria

read more •On April 2013, Hezbollah confirms its fighters have deployed to Syria to fight in the country's conflict on the side of President Bashar al-Assad.
•In the following years it sends thousands of its militants across the border, with military and financial aid from regional Shiite heavyweight Iran.

2013 May 01
Lebanon / Syria
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
– Delaying the Elections

read more •On May 01st 2013, Parliament votes to put-off elections due in June until November 2014 because of security concerns over the conflict in Syria.

2013 Sept
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
– Refugee crisis

read more •On September 2013, the UN refugee agency states there are at least 700,000 Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

2013 Dec 03
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
– Accusation of Saudi intelligence services

read more •On December 03rd 2013, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah says the Saudi intelligence services were behind the bombings outside the Iranian embassy in Beirut.

2014 April
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
–Refugee crisis

read more •In April 2014, more than one million Syrian refugees are registered in Lebanon, UN says. •The accelerating influx means that 1 in every 4 people living in Lebanon is now a refugee from the Syrian conflict.

2014 September 27
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
–Prime Minister Salam call for world leaders to help Lebanon

read more •On September 27th 2014, Prime Minister Salam appeals to world leaders at the UN to help Lebanon face a ''terrorist onslaught'' and the flood of refugees from Syria.

2015 June
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
– Waste Crisis, Closing of main landfills

read more •In June 2015, a crisis about waste erupts when authorities close the main landfill site near Beirut, having arranged no alternative.
•Large protests broke out as rotting waste filled streets and demonstrators chanted “You stink!” at the government.

2015 July

Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
– Lebanon’s waste crisis in July 2015

read more •The crisis began when a huge landfill site closed and government authorities failed to implement a contingency plan in time to replace it; dumping and burning waste on the streets became widespread. The campaign group Human Rights Watch calls it "a national health crisis".

Stagnant Economy and slowing Capital inflows, failure to curb a massive budget deficit
– Government Crisis

read more Tensions & Delays in the formation of New Government: Negotiations to form a new government drag on until late January 2019, with Hariri blaming Hezbollah.

Stagnant Economy and slowing Capital inflows, failure to curb a massive budget deficit
– Stagnant Economy & Massive Budget Deficit

read more •Amid a stagnant economy and slowing capital inflows, the government faces pressure to curb a massive budget deficit.
•Proposals to cut the state wage and pension bill meet stiff opposition.
•The government vows to enact long-delayed reforms but fails to make progress that might unlock foreign support.

2019 September
Downtown- Beirut
Stagnant Economy and slowing Capital inflows, failure to curb a massive budget deficit
– Deteriorating economy

read more In September, hundreds of people protest in Beirut over the deteriorating economy and increasingly difficult living conditions, largely caused by the fall of the Lebanese pound.

2019 Oct 13
Chouf Areas: Damour Mechref SaidaKhroub
In September, hundreds of people protest in Beirut over the deteriorating economy and increasingly difficult living conditions, largely caused by the fall of the Lebanese pound
– Lebanon Wild Fires

read more •Lebanon Wildfires 2019 is a series of about 100 forest fires according to Lebanese Civil Defense, which broke out on Sunday October 13th 2019, at night, and spread over large areas of Lebanon's forests.
•It came on large areas of forests and residential areas in both the Chouf, Khroub and other areas to the south of Beirut, while four houses were completely burned.
•Residents were directed to evacuate their homes for fear of suffocation and threatening their lives. At least 1 civilian reportedly died in the Chouf area while volunteering to help firefighters extinguish a fire.
•The intensity of smoke clouds caused by the fires reached a limit covering the entrances of Beirut, Chouf and Saida.

2019 Oct 17
Downtown - Beirut
In September, hundreds of people protest in Beirut over the deteriorating economy and increasingly difficult living conditions, largely caused by the fall of the Lebanese pound
– Beirut Port Explosion 04th of August 2020

read more Economic Crises •Big Street Protests after government decision to tax internet calls: In October, a government move to tax internet calls ignites big protests against the ruling elite. Lebanese of all sects take part, accusing leaders of corruption and mismanagement. •On October 17th 2019, unprecedented cross-sectarian street protests rock Beirut, with demonstrators railing against austerity measures, official corruption and poor infrastructure.
Governmental Crises
•PM Saad Hariri quits on October 29th 2019.
•The financial crisis accelerates. Depositors are frozen out of their savings as a hard currency liquidity crunch bites.
•The Lebanese currency begins to crash.
Economic & Financial Crises
•Lebanon defaults on its sovereign debt in March 2020.
•Talks with the IMF get nowhere as the main parties and the influential banks resist a financial recovery plan.
•The financial collapse accelerates, with the currency losing up to 80% of its value. Poverty rates soar.
•It is estimated that between October 2019 and June 2020, the Lebanese currency lost 70% of its value.
•Plans to rescue the economy: On April 30th 2020, Lebanon, having defaulted •n its sovereign debt for the first time in its history, adopts a plan to rescue the economy and vows reforms.

2019 Dec 19
Downtown- Beirut
In September, hundreds of people protest in Beirut over the deteriorating economy and increasingly difficult living conditions, largely caused by the fall of the Lebanese pound
– Beirut Port Explosion 04th of August 2020

read more New government Formation, appointment of a new PM
•On December 19th 2019 little-known academic Hassan Diab, backed by Hezbollah, is named prime minister – and immediately rejected by protesters.
Government Crisis
Formation of a new government: On January 21st 2020, a new government is unveiled, made up of a single political camp, the pro-Iranian Hezbollah and its allies, who have a parliamentary majority.
Government Crisis
•Tasking Hariri as PM to form a new Cabinet: On October 22nd 2020, after a failed attempt to secure the post by ambassador Mustapha Adib, the
•President of Lebanon, Michel Aoun, tasked Saad Hariri with forming a new government following the resignation on the 10th of August of Hassan Diab in the aftermath of the 04th of August Beirut port explosion.
Baabda Prison Escape
•On November 21st 2020, 69 inmates escaped from a prison in Baabda.
It was reported that the prisoners smashed their cell doors and attacked prison guards.
•Fifteen escapees were re-arrested and another four turned themselves in after.
Five others were killed and one was injured in a car crash after stealing the car on the run.
•Forty-Four escapees were not caught

2020 Feb - March
Downtown - Beirut
Beirut Port Explosion 04th of August 2020
–Healthcare Crises

read more •Covid-19: The 1st case of Covid-19 is confirmed in Beirut.
•Covid-19 restrictions: Lebanon bars all travel by non-residents by air, sea or land from countries worst hit by the COVID-19 outbreak. The Public Works •Ministry named China, South Korea, Iran, and Italy as affected countries.
Covid-19 death: 1st case of Covid-19 death is recorded in March 10th 2020

2020 June

Beirut Port Explosion 04th of August 2020
– Military Crisis

read more •The military is stretched dangerously thin, having to protect Lebanon’s despised politicians and banks, diffusing fights at petrol stations and clamping down on smuggling.
•The leadership is worried that it will no longer be able to deploy in the necessary areas because its soldiers haven’t received wages.
•As a result, the soldiers also suffer – alongside their people – from the deteriorating socio-economic conditions.
•A few weeks ago, the extent of the problem was exemplified by the agreement of 20 nations to provide emergency aid to the ailing Lebanese military. This consisted of basic supplies such as milk, flour, medicine and fuel. The United States remains the biggest financial backer of the Lebanese military. This year it has increased funding from $15 million a year to $120 million. However, this still falls dramatically short of the aid needed.

2020 Aug 10

Beirut Port Explosion 04th of August 2020
– Cabinet collapse, Diab quits, Political Paralysis & Lockdowns

read more •On August 10th 2020, Diab government quits after months of protests over falls in the value of the currency and the impact of the Covid-19.
•Lockdown due to Covid-19 culminate.
•Complete Political paralysis.

2019 2020 2021
All over Lebanon
Financial & Economic Crises
– Lebanon at risk of Inplosion, Negociations with the IMF, Sharp Fall in the Official Currency Exchange Rates.

read more Financial: World Bank Warns Lebanon at Risk of “Implosion” & Eurobonds Debt Deficits.

•Lebanon was at risk of “implosion” unless it develops a new governance model that is less corrupt and more transparent, the World Bank warned on February 16th 2020.
•The IMF will analyze countries’ financial governance to get an idea of how rampant corruption is, and the economic impact.
•Lebanon defaulted on its international debt in March 2020, after years of political upheaval and economic mismanagement left it unable to service a debt burden that was then worth more than 170% of GDP.
•After a year of political deadlock, a new government formed this month under Sunni Muslim tycoon Najib Mikati, with three-quarters of the population now in poverty after one of the deepest depressions of modern history.
Economic Crisis
•Lebanon’s economy has long depended on a regular in-flow of US dollars, and the Central Bank has pegged the Lebanese pound to the US dollar at an official exchange rate of 1,507.5 Lebanese pounds since 1997.
•Over the last 10 years, as economic growth slowed and remittances from the Lebanese diaspora have decreased, the quantity of dollars in circulation has declined.
•Depositors withdrew from dollar accounts, making dollars increasingly scarce and causing the unofficial exchange rate to hit 8,000 Lebanese pounds in September 2020.
•In May 2021, the Lebanese government began formal negotiations with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to discuss a plan to rescue the economy and request around US$10 billion dollars in aid.
•However, the negotiations stalled when politicians failed to agree on the size of the country’s financial losses.
•A Sharp fall in the currency, which hit record lows in July 2021, unofficially trading at up to 24,000 LBP.
•USA imposed sanctions and the smuggling of foreign currency across the border into Syria further exacerbated shortages of circulating USD.
•Banks imposed extreme capital control measures, such that people were unable to access their own USD savings.
Effects of Financial and Economic Crisis
•Imminent lifting of subsidies on essential items, combined with ongoing currency devaluation, will see further diminishing of purchasing power.
•Curtailed imports due to foreign currency shortages caused massive food price inflation and rising food insecurity.
•A new humanitarian landscape emerged, with a large proportion of the •Lebanese population joining already vulnerable refugee and marginalized groups requiring aid.
•Self-harm and suicides due to economic distress were reported in the media (24), and in April 2020 a government minister conceded that 70–75% of the population was in need of financial aid.

2019 2020 2021
All over Lebanon
Freedom of Speech and Expression Crises

read more Spate of Free Speech Prosecutions
•A spate of prosecutions since the outbreak of nationwide protests on October 17th 2019 against activists and journalists critical of government policies and corruption is threatening free speech and opinion in Lebanon.
•At Least 29 Investigated for Defamation, Insult Since October 17.
•Security agencies called in at least 29 people for interrogation concerning free speech charges, including insult and defamation, between October 17, 2019 and March 6, 2020.
•Insult and defamation are criminal offenses in Lebanon, with prison terms of up to three years. Media also reported that at least 20 people, including at least 18 children, were briefly detained and interrogated in 2 separate incidents for tearing down posters of politicians and the president.
Civilians attending Military Courts
•At least two civilians have appeared before military courts in Lebanon in recent days, prompting fresh concerns over authorities’ attempts to stamp out dissent in the country. Hassan Yassine and Nour Chahine both face charges related to their involvement in the protest movement currently sweeping Lebanon.
•Parliament Should Pass Law to Remove Civilians from Military Jurisdiction.

2019 2020 2021
All over Lebanon
Environmental & Health Crises
- Solid Waste Management Failures, Hospitals at Risks & Medication Shortages.

read more Environmental and Health Crises
•Despite the passage of a solid waste management law in 2018 banning the open burning of waste, municipalities still engage in the practice, posing health risks to nearby residents, especially children and older persons.
•The two major landfills servicing Beirut are set to reach capacity this year, but the government has not put in place a plan to tackle the looming trash crisis.
•Since the 2015 trash crisis, during which garbage built up on the streets of Beirut, the government has been relying on stopgap measures and temporary fixes that do not solve Lebanon’s underlying waste management problems, incurring huge environmental and public health costs.
•These range from the impacts of the 2015–2021 garbage crisis, to cancer clusters associated with industrial dumping of pollutants by factories owned by or aligned with politicians, to state failure to provide reliable electricity supply generating heavy reliance on private, diesel-based electrical power generators that have increased household exposure to airborne carcinogens, to corruption exacerbating health and social inequalities and impacting access to healthcare.
•Tonnes of dead fish have washed up on the banks of a lake on Lebanon's Litani river, engulfing a nearby village in a pungent smell, in a disaster blamed on polluted waters wash up on shore of polluted Lebanese lake.
Healthcare Crisis
•The financial crisis has thrown Lebanon’s healthcare sector into crisis. Hospitals are struggling to provide patients with urgent and necessary life-saving medical care due to the government’s failure to provide private and public hospitals with the funds it owes them.
•Dollar shortage has restricted the import of vital medical equipment and led banks to curtail credit lines. Medical supplies, including gloves and masks, are scarce, compromising Lebanon’s ability to deal with the coronavirus pandemic.
•Facing potential bankruptcy, in the midst of the pandemic many hospitals laid off staff and closed wards.
•Deteriorating conditions also precipitated mass health worker emigration and further compromised by brain drain. One in five doctors are believed to have either already left the country or intend to do so.

2019 2020 2021
All over Lebanon
Humanitarian Crises
- Refugees and Migrants Workers Rights

read more Life for Lebanon’s Migrant Domestic Workers Goes From Bad to Worse
•The situation for the estimated 250,000 migrant domestic workers, for instance, who are excluded from labor law protections, has gone from bad to worse.
•Many domestic workers have reported that their employers slashed their salaries—if they paid them at all. But even the more fortunate workers who are still receiving their salaries in full have seen their money’s value decrease by almost a third as the Lebanese lira depreciates.
•The new Labor Minister, Lamia Yammine, has an opportunity to correct this historical injustice. Dismantling the kafala system will not solve the economic crisis, but it will ensure that the tens of thousands of women who to work in Lebanon are not left to bear the brunt of it.
•An estimated 250,000 migrant domestic workers, primarily from Ethiopia, the Philippines, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, are excluded from Lebanon’s labor law protections, and their status in the country is regulated by the restrictive kafala (sponsorship) system, which ties migrant workers’ legal residency to their employer.
Refugees Crises
•Nearly one million Syrian refugees are registered with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Lebanon.
•Lebanon’s residency policy for refugees makes it difficult for Syrians to maintain legal status, heightening risks of exploitation and abuse and restricting refugees’ access to work, education, and healthcare.
•Seventy-eight percent of Syrians in Lebanon now lack legal residency and risk detention and deportation for unlawful presence in the country.
•According to the Lebanese Palestinian Dialogue Committee, there are approximately 174,000 Palestinian refugees living in Lebanon, where they continue to face restrictions, including on their right to work and own property.
•In addition, approximately 30,000 Palestinians from Syria have sought refuge in Lebanon.
•Lebanon is hosting the largest number of refugees per capita.

2019 2020 2021
All over Lebanon
Humanitarian Crises
- Shortages of Food, Medication, Electricity, Oil & Gaz

read more Food & Medication Shortages
•Food and medication shortages are now widespread. Many subsidized goods, including medications, are reportedly being smuggled out of Lebanon, further exacerbating supply-chain shortages.
•In July 2020, Save the Children reported that 910,000 people in the Greater Beirut area, including 564,000 children, did not have enough money to cover the costs of basics, including sufficient food.
•Experts warned of imminent overt famine and aid organizations warned they would start seeing children dying of hunger by the end of the year.
•A World Food Programme survey conducted in April–May 2020 reported that 50% of Lebanese respondents, 63% of Palestinians and 75% of Syrian refugees were worried that they did not have enough to eat in the preceding month; 44% of Syrians and one in five Lebanese and Palestinians reported only eating one meal over the previous day.
Water Scarcity & Water Pollution
•Since 2018 Lebanon's severe water shortage affects 1.6 million people in Beirut and the Mount Lebanon area, but especially the poorest neighborhoods of the city where 460,000 residents living on less than $4 a day have to make do with only a few hours of drinking water each day.
•The 1.5 million displaced Syrians now living in Lebanon have put the country's water supply under mounting pressure: UN-Habitat estimates that demand on water services has increased by almost 30 per cent since the crisis began. 3.7 million people – both Lebanese and Syrian – are in water need.
•Dependence on wells and ground water alternative supplies. (often heavily contaminated), down to the poorest refugee families living in and around camps who rely on unregulated informal water providers and water delivered by humanitarian agencies.
•UNICEF: NEW YORK, 21 August 2021 - “Unless urgent action is taken, more than four million people across Lebanon – predominantly vulnerable children and families – face the prospect of critical water shortages or being completely cut off from safe water supply in the coming days. “Last month, UNICEF warned that more than 71 per cent of the population of Lebanon could run out of water this summer. Since then, this perilous situation has continued, with critical services including water and sanitation, power networks and healthcare under huge strain. Vital facilities such as hospitals and health centers have been without access to safe water due to electricity shortages, putting lives at risk.
•“UNICEF is calling for the urgent restoration of the power supply - the only solution to keep water services running.

2019 2020 2021
All over Lebanon
Social, Humanitarian & Educational Crises
- The Impacts of Lebanon's Escalating Humanitarian Crisis on Children

read more Crises of the Educational Sector
•More than half of school-age refugee children are out of school.
•The Covid-19 pandemic and the transition to remote learning has exacerbated inequalities and increased the risk that some children, particularly the most vulnerable, will not come back once schools reopen.
•The government’s distance learning strategy was not implemented consistently in “second shift” classes, attended by Syrian children, leaving the majority “completely out of learning,”.
•Children with disabilities are often denied admission to schools and for those who manage to enroll, most schools do not take reasonable steps to provide them with a quality education.
•Lebanon’s Covid-19 response has overlooked children with disabilities, who cannot access remote education on an equal basis with others.
A Generation at Risk: The Impacts of Lebanon's Escalating Humanitarian Crisis on Children
•With over half the population now living in poverty, a generation of children are among those at risk.
•UNICEF has warned that children are the worst hit, with every aspect of their lives including health and safety at risk and their futures at stake.
•1,600 schools would close due to the economic crisis and many children had been withdrawn from schools due to economic hardship.
•Increasing rates of child labour have been reported since October 2019, including an increase in the number of children identified as being the sole breadwinners in their households.
• Rates of child marriage are reportedly increasing in Lebanon, particularly among Syrian refugee girls, to reduce the financial burden on families.
•The direct health impacts of Lebanon's multiple crises on children are pronounced, and include an increased number of children aged under 5 years with acute malnutrition.
•Girls and women are at an increased risk of physical and sexual violence and exploitation.
•Pooled data from multiple service providers in Lebanon also demonstrate increases in gender-based violence and increases in reports of online bullying and attacks.

2019 2020 2021
All over Lebanon
Governmental Crises
- Corruption in the Public Sector

read more Corruption<
•Lebanon ranks 149th of 180 countries on the 2020 Index of Perceived Corruption within the public sector, with its ranking plummeting over recent years.
•The state has long failed in its obligations to provide many services required to meet basic population needs. These failures and corrupt practices have had marked consequences on population health and well-being.

Paris I - 23 February 2001

Donors Workshops to help Lebanon- (Paris-I)

read more •France convened the first meeting with the international institutions (World Bank, European Investment Bank, European Commission) on 23 February 2001.
•The purpose was Lebanon's economic development.
•The Lebanese government presented its economic and financial policy.
•The meeting raised some 500 million euros in international aid.
It was decided in principle to hold a further meeting, extended to Lebanon's main economic partners, in order to support the programme to rebuild the Lebanese economy.

Paris II - 23 November 2002

Donors Workshops to help Lebanon- (Paris-II)

read more •France convened the second meeting with the international institutions (World Bank, European Investment Bank, European Commission).
•The second meeting, including Lebanon's main economic partners, was held on 23 November 2002.
•It was attended by 23 countries and international institutions, including the heads of government of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Lebanon, Malaysia, Qatar, and Spain, and the President of the European Commission.
•At this conference, the IMF applauded the efforts made by the Lebanese authorities in economic reform and the reduction of public debt.
•At Paris II, the participating countries announced an aid of 4.2 billion euros, comprising 3.1 billion in financial aid and 1.3 billion in project aid.

Stockholm Conference - 31 August 2006

Donors Workshops to help Lebanon- Stockholm Conference

read more •Stockholm conference was convened by the Swedish government on 31 August 2006, in close cooperation with the Lebanese government and with the support of the United Nations, after the summer confrontations.
•It was attended by some fifty donors - countries, international, regional, and non-governmental organizations.
•It provided political and financial support for the Lebanese government, which gave the international community an estimate of the damage suffered and requirements for short-term rehabilitation.
•Lebanon was promised a total of 980 million dollars in Stockholm. These sums have since been confirmed, and by the end of December 2006, some two-thirds of this total had already been committed and spent.

Towards Paris III - 25 January 2007

Donors Workshops to help Lebanon- (Paris-III)

read more •In response to a request from the Lebanese authorities, the President of France has decided to convene an international conference on support for Lebanon in Paris on 25 January 2007.
•This is the culmination of the work of the "Friends of Lebanon" group formed after the "Beirut Spring" (March 2005) and is intended to extend the aid granted at the Stockholm Conference.
•The conference on support for Lebanon on 25 January examined three areas: the political, in particular, the need to strengthen the Lebanese state so that it can fully exercise its sovereignty over its entire territory; Lebanon’s sectoral, economic, and social needs; the macroeconomic and financial, focusing on debt management and support for the reform program.
•In exchange for what Siniora hopes will be an extremely generous package of grants and soft loans to Lebanon from the 40 international donors attending the conference, the government of Lebanon will commit to an economic reform program consisting of: (1) an increase in the Value Added Tax (VAT) from 10 to 12 percent; (2) a decrease in government subsidies on fuel, and (3) the privatization of electricity and telecommunications (mobile phone) sectors.
•The funds raised at the conference would be used to help defray some ongoing recurrent costs, and to service Lebanon's estimated $41 billion in debt. In 2003, this crushing debt cost $3 billion a year in interest payments, equivalent to nearly 40 percent of Lebanon's annual budget.
•Opposition to Paris III: The Hizballah-Aoun alliance and its sympathizers have couched their opposition to Paris III in terms of criticism of foreign influence in Lebanon and government corruption.

PARIS - 06 April 2018

Donors Workshops to help Lebanon- (Cedar 1)

read more •Lebanon won aid pledges exceeding $11 billion on Friday at a Paris conference aimed at rallying international support for an investment program to boost its economy, French President Emmanuel Macron said.
•The source said French President Emmanuel Macaron had responded to Hariri's request to organize the conference in support of Lebanon: "Everyone should understand that this conference is not Paris 4 because Paris 1 2 and 3 were crisis management conferences, while Cedar is a reform and investment conference."
•Lebanon, which has been battered by seven years of war in neighboring Syria and is hosting more than a million Syrian refugees, wants the funds for investment to overhaul its infrastructure and lift dwindling economic growth.
•Donors in turn want to see Lebanon commit to long-stalled reforms. In a nod to those demands, Prime Minister Saad al-Hariri pledged to reduce the deficit of the budget as a percentage of GDP by 5 percent in the coming five years.
“It is important to continue reforms in the coming months,” Macron said, adding: “We’ll be by your side.”
•The source argued that the pre-election period for the conference has more advantages than cons: donors agree with the government's investment plan, but should be implemented later.
•Cedar became an element of public debate and the new authorities can not say that they did not know the subject.

2020 Dec 02

Donors Workshops to help Lebanon-
International Aid Conference

read more At the International Conference in Support of the Lebanese People, the United Nations, World Bank, and European Union launch their Reform, Recovery, and Reconstruction Framework.

2005 March 18

Post-Civil War Era - Forming a new Government

read more On March 18th 2005, days after his resignation, pro-Syrian former Prime Minister Omar Karami is asked by the president Lahhoud to form a new government.

2005 April 26
Post-Civil War Era - Withdrawal of Syrian Troops, on April 26th 2005

read more After the assassination of Hariri, calls for Syria to withdraw its troops intensify until its forces leave.
The remaining 14,000 Syrian troops and the Syrian intelligence services left the country.
Syria confirmed withdrawal of Syrian troops, apparatus and assets from Lebanon, as UN demanded.
The Secretary-General dispatched a UN mission to verify Syrian troops withdrawal.

2005 June

Post-Civil War Era - Governmental Elections, June 2005

read more Anti-Syrian alliance led by Saad al-Hariri wins control of parliament following elections.
New parliament chooses Hariri-ally, Fouad Siniora, as prime minister.

2006 August 18
South Lebanon
Post-Civil War Era - Deployment of Lebanese Army Forces

read more On August 18th 2006, for the first time in decades, the Lebanese state army begins to deploy its forces along the southern border with Israel.

2007 Dec 21

Political Events After 07th of May 2008- Special Tribunal appointment

read more On December 21st 2007, UN and the Netherlands had signed a headquarters’ agreement enabling the special tribunal for Lebanon to be based at The Hague.

2008 Jan 06

Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Endorsement for the election of president Suleiman & Calls for a new Electoral Law

read more On January 06th 2008, the Arab League adopted a three-point plan, endorsing the choice of Michel Suleiman, calling for his immediate election and for the formation of a national unity government in such a way that no party could impose or block any decision.
The president would be the arbiter in any contested decision, and there would be a new electoral law. Arab League Secretary-General Amr Moussa later went to Beirut twice in January to lobby the parties, and to Syria where he met President Bashar Al-Assad.

2008 Feb 13

Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Establishment of the Special Tribunal after the assassination of Prime Minister Hariri

read more On February 13th 2008, the Secretary-General announced that the management committee for the special tribunal had been established. He declared that financial contributions met the first 12 months of budgeted operations.

2008 Feb 26

Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Presidential Elections Delayed

read more On February 26th 2008, presidential elections were delayed for the fifteenth time to 11 March after parliament failed to agree on the composition of a future government.
On March 25th 2008, presidential elections were delayed for the seventeenth time to April 22nd 2008.
On March 29th 2008, leaders at the Arab League summit reiterated that Lebanese leaders should elect General Suleiman as president and agree on the basis for the formation of a national unity government as soon as possible.

2008 May 25 -28
Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Presidential Election
Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Appointment of Prime Minister
Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Formation of the Cabinet

read more On May 25th 2008, the Parliament elects army chief Michel Suleiman, the army chief, as president, ending six-month-long political deadlock. After mediation, rival leaders sign a deal in Qatar to end 18 months of political conflict.
On May 28th 2008, president Suleiman re-reappoints Fouad Siniora as prime minister of national unity government.
On July 11th 2008, after talks to avoid renewed civil war, Lebanon in July 2008 forms a 30-member national unity government in which Hezbollah and its allies have a veto.

2008 Aug 13
Syria Lebanon
Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Announcement of Diplomatic Relations Ties with Syria

read more On August 13th 2008, Lebanese President Michel Suleiman visited Syria for the first time since Syrian troops withdrew from Lebanon in 2005.
On his first visit to Syria as the president of Lebanon, Michel Suleiman agrees with President Bashar al-Assad that their countries will establish diplomatic ties for the first time since independence.
On October 2008 Lebanon establishes diplomatic relations with Syria for first time since both countries gained independence in 1940s.
On January 27th 2009, Syria accepted Lebanon’s first ambassador ever to Damascus.
On March 16th 2009, Lebanon opened its first embassy in Damascus.
On March 24th 2009, Syria appointed an ambassador to Beirut.

2008 Sept 16
Political Events After 07th of May 2008 - Reconciliation Talks

read more On September 16th 2008, rival political factions in Beirut hold first round of national reconciliation talks.

2009 March 03
Justice Tribunal over the Assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri – Arrests & Releases: Special Tribunal for Lebanon begins activity

read more On March 03rd 2009, the Special Tribunal for Lebanon began its activities in Hague on the 3rd of March, taking over from the Beirut-based UN International Independent Investigation Commission.

2009 April 29
Justice Tribunal over the Assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri – Arrests & Releases: Special Tribunal for Lebanon accpets the release of the four Generals

read more On April 29th 2009, Former Military Intelligence Chief Raymond Azar; Mustafa Hamdan, head of the presidential guard; Director of Internal Security Forces Ali Hajj; and Jamil al-Sayyed, head of the Lebanese General Security Directorate had never been charged with a crime.
On April 29th 2009, the Lebanon Special Tribunal decided to release four generals that had been arrested and detained in Lebanon in 2005 following recommendations of former chief investigator Detlev Mehlis.

2009 June 25
Reelection of Nabih Berri

read more On June 25th 2009, the Shi’a speaker of parliament, Nabih Berry, was re-elected.

2009 June 27

Parliamentary Elections and Unity Government

read more On June 27th 2009, the pro-Western March 14 alliance wins parliamentary elections. Saad Hariri was appointed prime minister, and dialogues about forming unity government.

2009 Nov 10
Formation of the Government

read more On November 10th 2009, a government was formed in Lebanon, five months after the 7th of June elections.

2010 Feb 25
Diplomatic Relations: Syria / Iran / Lebanon

read more On February 25th 2010, Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad hosted a public dinner with Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah.

Lebanese National Dialogue

read more On March 09th 2010, Lebanon resumed its national dialogue.
On August 19th 2010, Lebanon held the eleventh session of its national dialogue.

2010 Sept 06
Declaration of mistake in falsely accusing Syria
Boycotting UN Hariri Tribunal

read more On September 06th 2010, in Asharq Al-Awsat Hariri claimed in a news interview that Lebanon had made a mistake in falsely accusing Syria of assassinating the premier of Lebanon.
On October 2010, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah calls on Lebanon to boycott UN Hariri tribunal, saying it is "in league with Israel“.

2011 Jan 25
Appointment of Najib Mikati as Prime Minister
Cabinet Formation

read more On January 25th 2011, Hezbollah-backed Najib Mikati was appointed prime-minister.On June 13th 2011, Najib Mikati forms cabinet dominated by Hezbollah

2013 April 04-06
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
Tasking Tammam Salam to form a new Government
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
Cabinet formation after 10 months of national talks

read more On April 04th 2013, Sunni Muslim politician Tammam Salam is appointed as the new Prime Minister, and tasked with forming a new government that aims to establish a national unity government made up of technocrats.
On February 15th 2014, Sunni Muslim politician Tammam Salam finally assembles new power-sharing cabinet following 10 months of talks.

2013 July 22
Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
Hezbollah listed as a terrorist organization

read more On July 22nd 2013, European Union lists the military wing of Hezbollah as a terrorist organization.
This makes it illegal for Hezbollah sympathizers in Europe to send the group money, and enables the freezing of the group's assets there.

2014 May 24

Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
End of Presidential Terms

read more On May 24th 2014, President Suleiman ends his term of office, leaving a power vacuum.
Several attempts are made in parliament over subsequent months to choose a successor.

2014 November 05

Political & Security Crises due to the Syrian Conflict
Extension of Parliament terms

read more On November 05th 2014, Parliament extends own term to 2017, citing Syria-related security concerns.

2017 June 16

New Electoral Law and Parliamentary Elections
New Electoral Law

read more On June 16th 2017, a new electoral law was approved by Parliament after much delay.
Political parties have congratulated themselves for this “achievement,” despite being 4 years late and creating a dangerous precedent by illegally extending the parliamentary mandate three times since 2013.

2018 May 06

New Electoral Law and Parliamentary Elections
Lebanon is heading for its first parliamentary elections after 9 years of Political Paralysis
New Electoral Law and Parliamentary Elections
Change in the Power Balance

read more On May 06th 2018, more than 3.6 million registered voters in the country were eligible to choose among 583 candidates competing for 128 parliamentary seats.
Hezbollah and its allies dominate the first legislative elections since 2009.
Hariri's Future Movement loses a third of its seats, but he is designated premier for a third term.
The 2018 parliamentary election altered the political balance of power in the parliament. The largest parliamentary bloc, the Strong Lebanon bloc—led by the Free Patriotic Movement—captured 29 seats, followed by the Future Movement bloc, with 20 seats. While the Strong Lebanon bloc increased its number of seats by two, the Future Movement bloc lost 14 seats. The Lebanese Forces bloc experienced the largest change in number of seats, as it nearly doubled in size from eight in 2009 to 15 in 2018. While the Amal Movement bloc increased its share to 17 seats, Hezbollah's bloc managed to hold on to 13 seats, the same number they had in the last parliament. The Progressive Socialist Party bloc and Kataeb both lost two seats.

2005 March 08
Downtown - Beirut
Street Demonstrations
On March 08th 2005, a Hezbollah-organized rally takes place in Beirut, demonstrating support for Syria.

read more • On March 14th 2005, thousands of people attend a rally at Martyr’s Square in Beirut, demanding ‘the truth’ regarding Hariri’s assassination and calling for an end to Syria’s presence in Lebanon.

2005 March 18
Downtown - Beirut
Street Demonstrations
On March 18th 2005, hundreds of thousands of Lebanese rally in Beirut to show support for Syria.

read more

2006 Feb 05
Ashrafieh - Beirut
Demonstrations and Aggressions

read more • On February 05th 2006, the Denmark's embassy in Beirut is torched during a demonstration against cartoons in a Danish paper satirizing the Prophet Muhammad.
• Lebanese security forces fired shots in the air and used water cannon in a vain attempt to prevent the crowd reaching the Danish Consulate.

2006 Nov 13
Downtown - Beirut
Parliament Resignation, Demonstrations, and General Strike Actions

read more • On November 13th 2006, Ministers from Hezbollah and the Amal movement resign shortly before the cabinet approves draft UN plans for a tribunal to try suspects in the killing of the former PM Hariri.
• Thousands of opposition demonstrators in Beirut demand the resignation of the government.
• Hezbollah-led opposition steps up pressure on the government to resign by calling general strike.

2006 Dec 01
Downtown - Beirut
Protests calling for Prime Minister Resignation

read more • On December 01st 2006, Hezbollah, Amal and supporters of Michel Aoun, a Christian leader, camp outside the office of PM Fouad Siniora in Beirut, in an open-ended campaign to topple the government.
• The opposition began protests in Beirut, pressuring PM Fouad Siniora to form a unity government or resign.

2007 Jan 21-23
General Strike Actions, Road Blocking and Conflicts

read more • On January 21st 2007, the opposition called for a national strike.
• The opposition closed down several key roads, stopping traffic into Beirut, obstructing the airport road, closing the airport.
• Three protestors were killed and 50 wounded in clashes with the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) and accompanying sectarian violence.

2007 March
Downtown - Beirut
Protests, Tents and Sit-In
On March 2007, 100 days of tents in downtown of Central Beirut remain, as part of the opposition protest.

read more

2008 Jan 27
Violent Demonstration and Deaths
On January 27th 2008, demonstrations in Beirut turned violent and at least 8 people were killed.

read more 19 soldiers were charged with firing at protesters and disobeying military orders, while 58 civilians were charged with rioting and attacking soldiers.
At an emergency session in Cairo, Arab foreign ministers agreed that the League’s Secretary-General Amr Moussa should continue mediation among the Lebanese parties.

Governmental Collapse
In 2011 violence returned to Beirut`s streets when the government of Saad Hariri collapsed and Najib Mikati came to power.

read more

2015 July
Naameh - Mount Of Lebanon
Street Protests
In July 2015, a series of protests in response to the government's failure to find solutions to a waste crisis caused by the closure of the Beirut and Mount Lebanon region waste dump in Naameh (south of Beirut).

read more

2019 Oct 17
All over Lebanon
17th of October 2019 Revolution

read more New Taxes Announcement and Protests Surging
• On October 17th 2019, the Lebanese Government announces new taxes as part of austerity measures, including a VOIP tax on calls by social media. (20 cents-per-day fee)
• A wave of demonstrations engulfed Lebanon for months. A peaceful protest movement started in Beirut, then spread throughout the country, with participants calling for long-awaited political and economic reforms. Protests spread quickly throughout the country.
• The minister of telecommunication announces the cancellation of the VOIP tax, but protests continue to swell.
Cancellation of the Government Proposal
• On October 18th 2019, the government abandons the proposals and Prime Minister Saad Hariri calls for cooperation within the coalition government to draw up a solution plan for the crisis and help meet the demands of the protestors.
• The protests continue to intensify. // Riot police fires tear gas on protesters. // Banks shut down.
• The offices of representatives of the Hezbollah and Amal Movement in Nabatiyye, as well as the office of Free Patriotic Movement in Tripoli, are vandalized.
Political Turbulences & Aggressions
• On October 19th 2019, the Maronite Lebanese Forces party (LF) withdraws its four ministers from the government and calls on Hariri to resign.
• Hezbollah’s secretary general Hassan Nasrallah makes a speech validating the economic grievances of the protesters but calls against the resignation of the government.
• Former MP Mosbah al-Ahdab’s bodyguards fire on protesters in Tripoli and injure four protesters, after the former MP was kicked out from amongst the protesters.
• The first martyr of the revolution, Hussein Al-Attar was shot while protesting and blocking the airport road.
Reform Package Agreement
• On October 21st 2019, the governmental cabinet meets to agree on a reform package and a reduction in state budget a $3.4 billion while insuring the cancelation of new taxes.
• Protests continue unabated. // Protests swell in size and geography from small villages in Mount Lebanon to Tripoli to the south. //Banks remained closed.
President Aoun addresses the Protestors
• On October 24th 2019, in his first speech after the protests, President Michel Aoun acknowledges the grievances of the protesters and offers to hold a dialogue to find the best solution forward. Protesters reject the offer of Aoun.
• Scuffles between Hezbollah’s supporters and demonstrators in Downtown Beirut.
Hezbollah outside the Protests On October 25th 2019, on a second speech, Hezbollah’s secretary general Hassan Nasrallah calls on his supporters to not take part in the protests insinuating that they are part of an Israeli and American plot. He also cautions against a slippage into civil war.
Rubber Bullets inducing Injuries & Wounds On October 26th 2019, the military forces uses rubber bullets injuring eight protesters in Beddawi, North Lebanon. Two are in a critical condition.
Lebanese Citizens Human Link Chain On October 27th 2019, protestors form a 170-km human chain linking Tripoli in the north of Lebanon to Tyre in the south.
Parliament Resignation and Aggressions
• On October 29th 2019, Prime Minister Saad Hariri announces resignation after almost two weeks of nationwide protests.
• Black-clad supporters of Hezbollah and Amal political party attack demonstrators in Beirut with batons and pipes, destroying and torching protestors’ tents.
President Supportive Assembly Rally to support the President along with continued Citizens Protestations
• On November 03rd 2019, the Free Patriotic party – the President’s party – organizes a supportive assembly for the president.
• Citizens Protests continue across the country for the third weekend.

• Women’s March on November 07th 2019
Postponing Parliamentary Legislative Session in addition to the murder of a revolt citizen named Alaa Abou Fakher
• On November 12th 2019, the Parliamentary legislative session postponed to November 19th after protestors vied to block the road to the parliament.
• Third speech for Hezbollah’s secretary general Hassan Nasrallah.
• Second martyr of the revolution, Alaa Abou Fakher shot down in protests following a televised interview with president Aoun.

• On November 15th 2019, Mohammad Safadi emerges as a candidate for prime ministry but is quickly rejected by protesters.
Newcomer wins the Beirut Bar Association (Syndicat of Lawyers) Elections
• On November 17th 2019, Melhem Khalaf wins the elections of Beirut Bar Association, in first time an independent candidate wins such an election.
• Khalaf’s win was considered a victory by the protestors.
Protesters block Roads near Parliament
• On November 19th 2019, Protesters block roads to the parliament in efforts to prevent the two legislative sessions scheduled for the day and were met with violence.
• The sessions were postponed indefinitely after failure to reach quorum.
Speech of President Aoun
• On November 21st 2019, President Aoun gives speech ahead of independence day and calls for end of protests as he vows an anti-corruption cabinet.

2019 Nov 24
All over Lebanon
17th of October 2019 Revolution

read more Violent Clashes & Tents Burning
• On November 24th 2019, Violent clashes between protestors and pro-Hezbollah and Amal movement supporters demanding the end of road-blocking imposed by protestors. Protestors’ camps were burnt down.
Two Citizens Death in a car accident due to Road Obstructions
• On November 25th 2019, two died in a car accident after hitting a roadblock set by protestors, provoking pro-Hezbollah and Amal movement supporters. Hussein Chalhoub and his sister-in-law Sanaa Al Jundi.
• Pro-Hezbollah and Amal movement supporters attack protest camps in Tyre.
• Pro-Hezbollah and Amal movement supporters circulate in motorcycle convoys in Cola area and clash with supporters of Saad Hariri.
Violent Clashes in Chiyah Ain Remmeneh
• On November 26th 2019, for a third night in a row, clashes broke out in several cities and towns across Lebanon: clashes between supporters of Kataeb party and Free Patriotic Movement in Bekfaya, Amal and Hezbollah supporters trash protest camps in Baalbek.
• Clashes between Chiyah and Ain Remmeneh areas, a prominent dividing line from the Civil war, incite sectarian tensions.
Samir Khatib denounced as PM, Hariri withdrawed his candidacy, Diab is nominated
• On December 03rd 2019, Samir Khatib denounced as PM. Protesters gathered to denounce the nomination of Samir Khatib, a notable businessman, as new Prime Minister.
• Khatib withdrawed his candidacy on December 08th: Samir Khatib removed his name from candidacy after continuous protests against his nomination.
• Hariri cancelled his candidacy on December 18th: Saad Hariri calls on President Aoun to rule himself out of candidacy for prime ministry position.
• Hassan Diab is nominated as PM on December 19th: A professor at the American University of Beirut, Hassan Diab, is nominated to be the next prime minister. Mr Hariri and many parties abstain on the vote. Protesters reject Mr. Diab’s nomination.

2020 Feb 06
Martyrs’ Square - Riad Al-Solh - Al-Nour Squar
17th of October 2019 Revolution

read more Continued Protests to confront supplementary Taxes intitiation
• On February 06th 2020, Lebanon's new government highlights plans to confront tax evasion and approves a policy paper to tackle the country's deepening financial crisis.
• Mass Protests & Confidence Vote: Thousands of protesters gathered around the entrances to parliament early on February 11 and tried to obstruct MPs from attending the session. Protesters reject the new cabinet, saying its members have clear connections to established political parties and are unable to address the economic crisis.
• Dozens are wounded and tear gas wafts through the air before 9am: The Lebanese Red Cross reported treating 328 injuries at the scene and transporting 45 to nearby hospitals.
Forceful Removal of Tents
• On March and April 2020, the forceful removal of tents in Beirut’s Martyrs’ Square and Riad Al-Solh and Tripoli’s Al-Nour Square — some of the most iconic locations of the October uprising — marked a symbolic end to the popular mobilization and its physical occupation of public spaces.
Decline in the Streets Demonstrations and Goverment taking this advantage to Clear Squares and Roads
• On March 2020, demonstrations declined not only in overall numbers, but also in their geographic spread.
• While demonstration events were recorded in over 280 distinct locations between October 2019 and January 2020, the number declined to 180 between February 2020 and July 2020.
• Security forces took advantage of the dwindling mobilization to clear squares and roads of protest camps.

2006 July-Auga
South Lebanon
War against Lebanon
- 34 days Targeting civilians and disproportionate attacks

read more Israel attacks Lebanon over 34 consecutive days after Hezbollah kidnaps
two Israeli soldiers
•Israel imposed complete land, sea, and air blockade on Lebanon starting July 15th 2006 and lasting for 34 days, that continued until September 2006.
•The Israeli bombed the runways of the Beirut international airport and its fuel tanks.
•Multiple Israeli air strikes on villages in South Lebanon killed several dozen civilians, including entire families. July 13th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•In Zibqin, South Lebanon, 12 members of the same family were killed, and 2 others were wounded.
• In Baflay, 10 civilians were killed, as well as two Kuwaitis and one Sri Lankan.
• In Srifa, a 34-year old man Brazilian/Lebanese , his wife, and two children were killed.
• In al-Dweir, an Israeli air strike on the house of a cleric killed him, his wife, and 10 of their children (ages 2 months to 18 years old) •In Shhur, an Israeli missile attack on the home of a German-Lebanese national spending holidays in Lebanon killed him and five relatives.
• In Barashit, two civilians were killed and three severely injured from the same family in an air strike that targeted a Hezbollah arms storage site.
• In Shehabiyyeh, an Israeli air strike on the home of a Hezbollah official wounded 3 of his sons (20, 17, and 10-years old).July 13th 15th 2006
- Targeting civilian objects and medical facilities.
•The Israeli Air Force bombed the Jiyeh power station in South Lebanon. This caused 10,000 to 15,000 tons of fuel to spill into the Mediterranean Sea; 55,000 tons burning; and the pollution of 120 kilometers of coastline.July 15th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
• Israeli navy warship and helicopter missiles attacked a convoy of families fleeing from the village of Marwahin, South Lebanon. The attack killed 23 civilians, children being the majority.
The convoy was fleeing after the Israeli Army ordered the residents to evacuate.
• July 15, 2006: In Bint Jbeil, South Lebanon, two civilians were killed as a result of the destruction by an Israeli drone of a three-storey building, and two other civilians were killed as they were trying to rescue the victims of the first attack.July 16th 18th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
• In the village of Aytaroun, two Israeli air strikes killed 21 civilians, many of them were children, including six children younger than 12 and elderly people.
• The Israeli Air Force hit a 13-story building in Sour where dozens of civilians from villages from the south had sought refuge. At least 11 were killed.
• July 18, 2006: A family of 9, including five children, was killed by an Israeli air strike on two houses in the village of Aytaroun.
• July 19, 2006: 27 Lebanese civilians were killed by helicopter missiles in various air strikes in the villages of Selaa; Srifa; in Nabi Sheet, in the Beqaa; in ‘Aynata (4 killed and 3 wounded, all from the same family); and in Debbine (a man and his 2 children).
July 23rd 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•In Mansuri, 2 civilians were killed and 4 children severely burned in a helicopter or drone attack on their three-car convoy fleeing to Sour and waving white flags.
•An Israeli Apache helicopter hit another civilian vehicle fleeing from Mansuri, wounding 9 civilians as the car was in sight of a hospital.
•Multiple attacks were carried out on roads in South Lebanon by Israeli Apache helicopters on civilian vehicles, killing at least 6 civilians and wounding 27. This included 3 killed and 14 wounded from one family, who were fleeing from al-Tiri in a van and waving white flags.
July 23rd 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•In Qana, South Lebanon, two clearly marked Lebanese Red Cross ambulances were struck by missiles fired by an Israeli drone, wounding all six workers and three civilians, including one child.
•Two of the civilians suffered permanent disability as a result.
July 23rd 2006 - Attacks against UN observers
•30 direct attacks by the Israeli Army were documented to have taken place against UNIFIL positions, leading to the death of four unarmed UN observers at the Khiyam base. The UN HRC concluded that these attacks were not justified.
•In Khiyam, South Lebanon, four UN observers were killed by an Israeli precision guided missile fired on their clearly marked post.
July 24th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
• In Hallusiyeh, Sour, 11 civilians, including 5 children and 5 women, were killed in an air strike that destroyed 7 to 10 buildings.
•In Haris, South Lebanon, 8 civilians were killed in an air strike on a house 10 minutes after 4 militants were killed in another house.
July 28th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
• The Israeli Air Force attacked a house in the center of the village of Ainata, South Lebanon, near the mosque, killing 15 civilians, including 12 women and children.
July 29th 2006
• On the coastal road between Sour and Saida, in Numeiriye, South Lebanon, an Israeli air strike demolished a house, killing a woman, her 4 children, and a neighbor.
July 30th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•In Qana, 27 civilians were killed, including 16 children, in an Israeli air strike on several houses, including a three-story building where 63 civilians from two families had sought shelter.
August 01st 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•In Nabatieh, South Lebanon, an Israeli air strike destroyed a house, killing two women and a 12-year-old girl.
August 05th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•In al-Qaa, in the Beqaa, close to the Syrian-Lebanese border, 2 Israeli air strikes killed at least 23 Syrian agricultural workers, including 5 women.

2006 Aug 07
Chiyah – Southern Beirut
War against Lebanon
- 34 days Targeting civilians and disproportionate attacks

read more August 07th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•An Israeli air strike on an apartment building in the densely populated neighborhood of Chiyah in Beirut killed 39 people without previous warning, including 11 children.
•Israeli Army dropped leaflets calling on residents to leave Chiyah, as well as Hay al-Selloum and Burj al-Barajneh only three days later.
August 07th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
• An Israeli air strike on an apartment building in Ghazieh, Saida, killed at least 16 civilians, including 8 women and children from the same family.
August 07th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
• In Britel, in the Beqaa, 8 civilians, including 4 women were killed during an Israeli attack. A ninth civilian was killed by a missile that hit his car while he was taking one of the wounded to the hospital.
August 08th 2006 - Israel War against Lebanon
•In Beirut’s southern suburb of Chiyah, 39 civilians were killed in an air strike on 3 buildings.
•In Maaroub, South Lebanon, an Israeli air strike on the basement of a school where a family had taken shelter killed a mother and her 3 children.
•That same day, in Ghazieh 10 civilians were killed in three separate incidents.
•An air strike targeting a house killed 7 civilians: another air strike that hit a funeral procession for victims of the previous day killed a 2-year-old and injured her pregnant mother; and an air strike on 2 houses killed 2 people.
2006 War - Use of Cluster Bombs
•The Israeli Army dropped an estimated one million cluster sub munition “duds” on South Lebanon.

2007 Aug 06
South Lebanon
War against Lebanon
- 34 days Targeting civilians and disproportionate attacks

read more August 06th 2006 - Deployment of the Lebanese Army Forces (LAF)
•Following the truce agreed to on August 14, 2006, UNIFIL and the Lebanese Army began to deploy along the border with Israel. Since then, no large-scale clashes have taken place, but numerous violations of territorial space continue to take place regularly, and sporadic violent incidents occur.
October 01st 2006 - Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon
•Israel completes withdrawal from Lebanon, except for northern part of divided village of Ghajar.
Lebanese army and UNIFIL take control of south under ceasefire deal.

Palestinian refugee camp of Nahr El-Bared – North Lebanon
Nahr El-Bared
Widespread Displacement of Refugee Population & Prolonged Arbitrary Detention

read more Armed Conflicts in Nahr El-Bared Camp - Camp destruction
•Between May 20th and September 02nd 2007, an armed conflict between the Lebanese Army and a Sunni militant group, Fatah al-Islam, took place in the Palestinian refugee camp of Nahr al-Bared in North Lebanon.
•The civilian population of around 40,000 found itself hostage to this conflict.
Between 26,000 and 27,000 camp residents (Palestinian refugees and Lebanese nationals) were able to flee to the neighboring Beddawi camp.
•As a result of the fighting, the camp was largely destroyed, a damage assessment showed that the entire camp had to be rebuilt. Explosions in Nahr El-Bared Camp
• On May 22nd 2007, two civilians were killed and others injured when an explosive device hit a UN humanitarian convoy delivering supplies inside the camp.
• Two other civilians were killed, including one pregnant woman, and others were wounded as their bus, fleeing the camp, approached an army checkpoint.
Armed Conflicts in Nahr El-Bared Camp
On June 11th 2007, two Lebanese Red Cross volunteers were killed at the northern edge of the camp by the fighting.
Shooting & Killings in Nahr El-Bared Camp
On June 29th 2007, at least two unarmed Palestinian civilians were shot and killed by Lebanese soldiers during a demonstration; the demonstrators were Palestinians, asking that they be able to return to their homes in the camp.

2007 May 20 –Sept 02
Nahr El-Bared Palestinians Camp – North Lebanon
Capturing and Torture in Nahr El-Bared Camp May
- September 2007

read more • More than 200 cases of torture and ill treatment were documented, including 2 cases of death during investigation and detention.
• The vast majority of the victims were arrested at checkpoints at the outskirts of the camp by military intelligence, transferred to the Ministry of Defense, and then to the Roumieh Prison.
• The methods of torture documented include severe beatings, the “Balanco” (in which the prisoner is suspended and whipped), deprivation of food, forced confessions, electric shocks, and other methods conducted by Lebanese security forces.

Nahr El-Bared Palestinians Camp – North Lebanon
Nahr El-Bared Camp is declared a Military Zone, 2007

read more Since the end of the conflict, the Lebanese Army declared the camp and its adjacent area as a “military zone, "which is in breach of Lebanon’s local and international legal obligations, according to the monitoring organization Palestinian Human Rights Organization (PHRO).

2009 Jan 08
South Lebanon
Justice Tribunal over the Assassination of Prime Minister Rafik Hariri
- Arrests & Releases

read more Fired Rockets from Lebanon towards Israel
• On January 08th 2009, at least three rockets were fired from Lebanon explode in northern Israel, wounding two people. Raising fears that this might trigger a wider conflict given the ongoing war between Hamas and Israel in Gaza.

2009 Feb
South Lebanon
Fired Artillery Shells from Israel towards Lebanon

read more • On February 2009, at least six artillery shells are fired from Israel and land in southern Lebanon, targeting an area where two rockets were fired toward Israel, one of which struck northern Israel.

2009 March 23
South Lebanon
Bomb Attack in South Lebanon

read more • On March 23rd 2009, a bomb attack in southern Lebanon killed Kamal Medhat, the deputy head of the Palestine Liberation Organization in Lebanon.

2009 April 13
Bekaa Valley
Killing of Lebanese army soldiers

read more • On April 13th 2009, four Lebanese army soldiers were killed in the Bekaa Valley by rocket propelled grenades, during an attempt by the army to confront drug dealing and criminality.

2009 Sept 11
South Lebanon
Exchange of Fire

read more • On September 11th 2009, rockets were fired into Israel from Lebanese territory, reportedly by Palestinian militias. Israel retaliated by firing 12 artillery shells.

2009 Oct 12
Tayr Filsi - Southern Lebanon
Explosion in a Residential Building in South Lebanon
On October 12th 2009, there was an explosion in a residential building in Tayr Filsi in southern Lebanon.

read more

2009 Oct 17-18
South Lebanon
Explosions resulting from Israel Defense Forces

read more • On October 17th 18th 2009, explosions were caused by the detonation of underground sensors apparently placed in Lebanese territory by the IDF during the 2006 war and characterized as “listening devices.”
• The Secretary-General urged all parties to exercise maximum restraint after an exchange of fire over the Lebanon/Israel border (October 28th).

2010 Feb 14
Fired Rockets towards Israeli aircrafts
On February 14th 2010, the Lebanese army fired on, but did not hit, Israeli aircraft violating Lebanon’s airspace.

read more

2010 May 13
South Lebanon
Detonation of munitions - Injuries
On May 13th 2010, UNFIL peacekeepers were injured by what seemed to be an accidental detonation of munitions.

read more

2010 June 29
South Lebanon
Armed Clashes
On June 29th 2010, clashes took place between civilians and UNIFIL peacekeepers in Southern Lebanon.

read more

2010 July 15
South Lebanon
Arresting a Spy to Israel
On July 15th 2010, Lebanon arrested an employee of a telecom firm, alleging he was a spy for Israel.

read more

2010 Aug 09
South Lebanon
Accusing Israel in Hariri assassination
On August 09th 2010, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah claimed Israel was implicated in the Hariri assassination.

read more

2010 Aug 03
South of Lebanon – Separation Line
Gunfire exchange along the Blue line

read more On August 03rd 2010, Israeli and Lebanese armies exchange gunfire along the blue line separating Israel and Lebanon resulting in the death of three Lebanese soldiers, one Israeli soldier and one Lebanese journalist.

Beirut Streets
Violent Clashes
Year 2011: This year has been marked by violent clashes between Lebanese who support the Syrian regime and those who oppose it.

read more

2013 March 18
Northern Lebanon
Border Tensions
On March 18th 2013, Syrian warplanes and helicopters fire rockets into northern Lebanon, days after Damascus warns Beirut to stop militants crossing the border to fight Syrian government forces.

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2013 May 20
Tripoli – North Lebanon
Sectarian Clashes
On May 20th 2013, Syria Supporters & Opponents: At least 10 people die in further sectarian clashes in Tripoli between supporters and opponents of Syrian regime.

read more Firing Rockets towards residential areas in Beirut
•On May 26th 2013, two rockets hit a district in the southern part of Beirut, wounding at least five people.
•One rocket struck a car dealership in the Mar Michael district on the edge of Beirut, injuring Syrian workers.
•Another rocket hit the 2nd floor of abuilding in the Shiyah district, about 2km away, without injuries.

2013 June
Deadly Clashes & Heavy Battles
On June 2013, Syria, Supporters & Opponents: A number of people are killed in clashes between Hezbollah gunmen and Syrian rebels within Lebanon.

read more Heavy Battles between Lebanese Troops & Sunni Religious
•On June 24th 2013, Lebanese troops battled heavily armed followers of Sunni religious leader Ahmad al-Assir who camped in a mosque complex in the southern city of Sidon.
•At least 17 Lebanese soldiers and an unknown number of Assir’s fighters are killed in clashes with Sunni militants in the port city of Sidon.

2013 Dec 03
Accusation of Saudi intelligence services
On December 03rd 2013, Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah says the Saudi intelligence services were behind the bombings outside the Iranian embassy in Beirut.

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2015 Jan 18
Golan - Syria
Israeli Air Strike

read more • On January 18th 2015, Israel launches air strikes on Syrian side of the Golan, killing Hezbollah fighters and an Iranian general.
•Several clashes ensue across Israeli-Lebanese border.

2017 Nov 03
Saudi Arabia
Detention & Forced Resignation of Hariri in KSA

read more • On November 03rd 2017, Saad al-Hariri’s was forced to resign and held in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
•Hariri publicly denied this version of events, though France’s Emmanuel.
•Macron later confirms that Hariri was being held in Saudi Arabia.

2019 Aug 25
Dahieh district of Beirut
Beirut Drone Crash

read more •Two drones, alleged to be from Israel by Lebanese authorities, crashed in the
•Dahieh district of Beirut. The first drone crashed into Hezbollah's Media Center, and the second drone exploded mid-air 45 minutes later.
•This was the first such incident between Lebanon and Israel since the 2006 war

2021 June
Palestinian Refugee Camps All over Lebanon
Power Dynamics in the Camps: Fears of Possible Violence in case of Aids Shortages

read more •Since June 2021, currently, political actors in Palestinian refugee camps, for example, such as Fatah and Palestinian Islamic Jihad in the Rashidieh camp, still have the authority as power brokers and peacekeepers.
•Any shortage of aid, such as the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), could tip the scales as desperation stirs violence.
•The same balance could also be tipped in the wider population with now more than half living below the poverty line, and with no end to the crisis in sight, further instability is to be expected throughout July and August.

  • Political Events
  • Assassinations & Internal Conflicts
  • Wars & External Aggressions
  • Protests
  • Crises
  • Hover over the dots on the timeline to browse significant events in the history Lebanon
  • Pin an infocard by clicking on its dot. Click away to unpin
  • Time intervals have magnified starting 2019 to include monthly events reflecting on the escalated violence during this period up until today

Assassinations and internal conflicts - Security incidents: They include killings, assassinations, bombings, shootings, civil wars, and other forms of disputes.
Wars & sovereign aggressions: They include air force and missiles attacks, border tensions, and drones' attacks.
Protests and demonstrations: They include a range of pacific demonstrations to high-intensity protests.
Political events: They are incidents and government decisions that marked, defined, and impacted people's daily lives.
Crises: That have hit Lebanon naming, the electricity shortage, economic collapse, the health sector failure, the environmental problems, etc..

Donors Workshop (Paris I: 2001 - Paris II: 2002 - Stockholm Conference: 2006 - Paris III: 2007 - Cedar 1: 20018)

Intensity Level 1: No human loss nor injury, limited material destructions, political, social, and economic impacts.
Intensity Level 2: Limited human injury, medium material destructions, political, social, and economic impacts.
Intensity Level 3: Human loss (1 to 20 deaths and/or injuries), average material destructions, political, social, and economic impacts.
Intensity Level 4: Human loss (100 to 200 deaths and/or injuries) with considerable material destructions, political, social, and economic impacts.
Intensity Level 5: Tremendous-human life losses (more than 200 deaths and/or injuries) with massive material destructions, political, social, and economic impacts.


2020 Carina’s Story
Beirut Port Explosion: Ammonium Nitrate

In 1990: after the end of the civil war, management of the port reverted to the state, as the company’s 30-year concession also ended in December 1990.[5] But, former warlords and political leaders who had a financial stake in how the port was managed could not agree on how to manage it, including whether the port should be a private or public institution. [6]

2013: The cargo of ammonium nitrate had entered Beirut's port on a Moldovan-flagged ship, the Rhosus, in November 2013.

2014: and had been offloaded into hangar 12 in Beirut's port on October 23 and 24, 2014.

Additional recourses:

2019 Mona’s Story
Person who lost hos job due to the economic crisis

2013/2017 - The law of reforming and increasing the salaries of public officials

1997: Fixing the official exchange rate: 1 ($) = 1,507.5 LBP

2019 Sami’s Story
Person who lost his money at the Banks

2017/2018: The beginning of the banking crisis (hidden to public)

2019 Mahmoud’s Story
Person cant afford the dollarized monthly rents

1990: Post civil war: Lebanon became a dollarized country https://www.elibrary.imf.org/view/journals/001/1994/129/article-A001-en.xml

2020 Hiba’s Story
Tarik el Jdide Explosion: Fuel Tank

1990: Electricity Shortages from EDL, lead to people look for alternative power supplies = Diesel generators that are located with the diesel tanks in the residential areas: in the buildings basements

2019 Ahmad’s Story
Beaten up by security forces in the protests

1998: Security forces cracked down on students and human rights activists holding peaceful demonstrations throughout Lebanon

2019 Ziad’s Story
Person can't find medications

1990: Post civil war: Absence of National Healthcare Plans.

2019 Lamia’s
Ain Qana Explosion

1975: The ongoing Turbulences in the South of Lebanon since 1975 until recent years, due to the non ending conflicts with the Israeli forces.

2019 Joyce’s
Civil Society and NGOs

1975: In Lebanon, civil society has played an important role throughout history with the creation of voluntary-run associations The Civil War period (1975-1990) witnessed a realignment of the modes of actions towards services and relief efforts. After the Civil War, the civil society sector continued expanding.